Cambodia is amongst the most vulnerable countries in South-East Asia to climate change and its health impacts, with seven of its provinces in the top 50 most vulnerable regions (Yusuf A 2010).
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue fever and malaria are particularly susceptible to climate change, due to climatic influences on the range, survival and behaviour of their insect vectors (mosquitoes) which transmit these pathogens to humans and influence on the replication of the virus (for dengue) and parasite (for malaria). In general, transmission dynamics favour warmer and wetter environments, such as the environment in many areas of Cambodia. Threats from other VBDs beyond dengue and malaria are also a potential, such as Chikungunya and Zika virus. Recent reports of the presence of these diseases in regional countries and the fact that they are also transmitted by the same Aedes mosquitoes that transmits dengue, further increase the threat they pose.
There are also adverse effects and impacts of climate change on water quality (safety), water quantity (availability) and water-related diseases (WRDs). Cambodia already suffers from a significant burden of WRDs.